采用果园喷雾施药机械施药时农药有效沉积率的计算方法
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摘要
针对传统农药沉积率测算方法无法精确反映果园中农药实际利用率的问题,提出一种结合果树冠层特征与叶面沉积量直接测算农药药液在果树靶标上有效沉积率的方法,以期建立一种适用于不同栽种模式的果园通用农药沉积率计算方法。首先采用传统方法计算采用风送式自走喷雾机喷雾后农药在乔化稀植型果园的地面流失率,将其结果与采用果树冠层特征与叶面沉积量相结合的方法计算的有效沉积率进行比较,再通过计算采用风送式自走喷雾机喷雾后农药在矮砧密植型果园的有效沉积率以及采用担架柱塞泵式喷雾机和植保无人飞机喷雾后农药的有效沉积率,验证本研究所提出的将果树冠层特征与叶面沉积量相结合计算农药有效沉积率方法的准确性及适用性。结果表明:基于叶面沉积量结合果树冠层特征方法计算得到的农药有效沉积率与采用传统方法计算得到的农药地面流失率结果基本一致,均能体现施药机械的农药利用率,但比较而言,本研究所提出的方法在果园植保机械喷雾施药有效利用率的影响因素方面考虑更全面,兼顾了叶面沉积量和果树冠层结构的影响,且对于不同栽种模式下的果园更具适应性。将果树冠层特征与叶面沉积量相结合进行果园农药有效沉积率的计算,可以更加真实地反映出果园农药的实际利用情况,同时通过将果树冠层结构量化为叶面积指数、冠层阴影面积等指标,可以为不同栽种模式下的果园选择适宜的植保机械,结合地面流失率的测量,计算出果园农药的飘移量,从而通过调整喷雾角度、雾滴大小、喷雾流量等参数,实现对植保机械的优化,达到精准施药的目的。
    
引文
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