喷雾参数对自走式喷杆喷雾机稻田喷雾农药利用率及雾滴沉积分布的影响
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摘要
比较在不同喷雾压力和施药液量条件下,采用自走式喷杆喷雾机在水稻分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期进行喷雾处理的农药利用率、沉积分布均匀性及水稻茎基部雾滴密度的差异,为建立自走式喷杆喷雾机在稻田的高效施药技术提供理论依据。以生物染料丽春红-G作为农药示踪剂,估测不同喷雾参数的农药利用率,并用变异系数、绝对份额比例值比较农药分布的均匀性。同时通过水敏纸收集水稻基部雾滴密度,分析不同喷雾参数下农药雾滴穿透水稻冠层的能力。结果表明:在水稻分蘖期,采用自走式喷杆喷雾机在喷雾压力为1.2 MPa、施药液量为375 L/hm2条件下喷雾,每个采样点的丽春红-G的平均沉积量仅为0.11 mg,与喷雾压力为0.4 MPa、施药液量为300 L/hm2条件下喷雾的沉积量相比减少了56.00%。在水稻孕穗期,当喷雾压力为1.2 MPa、施药液量为375 L/hm2时进行喷雾处理,每个采样点的丽春红-G的平均沉积量达0.26 mg,显著高于其他4个处理。在水稻扬花期,不同喷雾参数间的沉积量差距减小。在合适的喷雾压力和施药液量时,自走式喷杆喷雾机在水稻分蘖期、孕穗期和扬花期进行喷雾处理,农药利用率分别达到40.57%、54.97%和55.50%。综合变异系数和绝对份额比例两个指标,采用自走式喷杆喷雾机在喷雾压力为0.8 MPa、施药液量为300 L/hm2条件下喷雾,农药分布更均匀。喷雾压力对水稻基部雾滴密度有显著影响,在水稻生长中后期,当喷雾压力低于0.8 MPa、施药液量为225~375 L/hm2时,水稻茎秆基部雾滴密度均小于30个/cm2。研究结果表明,喷雾压力和施药液量对自走式喷杆喷雾机稻田喷雾的农药利用率、分布均匀性及水稻茎秆基部雾滴密度有显著影响。在水稻生长前期,不宜采用高压力大水量喷雾作业;在水稻生长中后期,为增加对水稻基部病虫害的防治效果,需提高喷雾压力。
    
引文
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