论农药雾滴的剂量及分布对害虫防治效果的影响及其与农药损失的关系
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摘要
为了明确农药雾滴在剂量传递中的作用方式,本文就雾滴的农药剂量和分布形式在保护作物和杀死害虫过程中的作用模式、以及由此产生的剂量损失进行了论述。农药剂量确定后,雾滴作为农药剂量的载体降落在水稻表面形成沉积点,害虫获得致死剂量后死亡。当雾滴在叶片表面呈连续的均匀分布时,害虫极易接触到药剂。如果害虫在第一时间获得致死剂量,则害虫死亡,其他剂量被浪费;如果第一时间未获得致死剂量,则害虫将继续为害,直至获得致死剂量,导致叶片受损。当雾滴累积的药液量超出叶片的流失点时,药液沉积量将减少约50%,药剂随药液流失,药液用量越多,药剂流失越多,与未流失者相比,需要2倍以上的农药剂量才能确保害虫获得致死剂量。当雾滴在叶片表面呈不连续的点状分布时:①若沉积点大小合适并含有致死剂量,则害虫接触沉积点后死亡,但若沉积点数量太少,则害虫在接触沉积点前会对水稻叶片造成伤害;②若沉积点太小并不足致死剂量,则害虫接触沉积点后仍继续为害叶片直至获得致死剂量;③若沉积点太大,虽含有致死剂量,但害虫只能接触该沉积点的小部分,不能获得致死剂量,则害虫可能在沉积点的范围内继续为害,也可能在几个沉积点的缝隙间为害直至获得致死剂量;④当沉积点的剂量超出致死剂量,则害虫接触沉积点后死亡,超出致死剂量的那部分农药被浪费。总之杀死害虫和保护作物需要有足够多的农药沉积点,而单位面积上沉积点的数量、大小和剂量即可组成农药的沉积结构,不同的沉积结构会产生不同的杀虫效果,最终影响农药利用率
    
引文
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